Companion Web Site for The Camera Assistant's Manual, 6th Edition
www.cameraassistantmanual.com

TABLES & FORMULAS

 

This page contains selected tables and formulas from the book that you may need
in the day-to-day performance of your job.   If there are any tables that you
feel should be added to this page please feel free to contact me at


cam@davidelkins.com
 


Click on one of the following links to go directly to that table.

Feet Per Minute & Frames Per Foot

Meters Per Minute & Frames Per Foot

Intermediate F-Stop Values

F-Stop Compensation - Filters

F-Stop Compensation
for Black & White Filters

F-Stop Compensation
Frames Per Second Changes

F-Stop Compensation
Shutter Angle Changes

Feet Per Second & Feet Per Minute

Meters Per Second & Meters Per Minute

Running Time to Film Length

Feet to Meters and Meters to Feet

 

 

Click on one of the following links to go directly to that formula.

Depth of Field Near

Depth of Field Far

Hyperfocal Distance

Electrical

Exposure Time

F-Stop

Feet Per Minute for 16mm

Feet Per Minute for 35mm
2-perf Format

Feet Per Minute for 35mm
3-perf Format

Feet Per Minute for 35mm
4-perf Format

Meters Per Minute for 16mm Meters Per Minute for 35mm
2-perf Format
Meters Per Minute for 35mm
3-perf Format
Meters Per Minute for 35mm
4-perf Format
Feet & Inches to Meters
Meters to Feet & Inches Screen Time  

 

 


 

Feet Per Minute & Frames Per Foot

 

Film Format

Frames Per Foot

Feet Per Minute at 24 fps

Feet Per Minute at 25 fps

Feet Per Minute  at 30 fps

Super 8

72

20

20.83

25

16mm

40

36

37.5

45

35mm, 2-perf format

32

45

46.88

56.25

35mm, 3-perf format

21.33

67.5

70.31

84.38

35mm, 4-perf format

16

90

93.75

112.5

65mm, 5-perf format

12.8

112.5

117.19

140.62


 


 

Meters Per Minute & Frames Per Foot

 

 

Film Format

Frames Per Meter

Meters Per Minute at 24 fps

Meters Per Minute at 25 fps

Meters Per Minute at 30 fps

Super 8

236.21

6.1

6.35

7.625

16mm

131.23

10.97

11.43

13.72

35mm, 2-perf format

105

13.72

14.29

17.15

35mm, 3-perf format

70

20.57

21.43

25.72

35mm, 4-perf format

52.5

27.43

28.57

34.29

65mm, 5-perf format

42

34.29

35.72

42.86


 


 

Intermediate F-Stop Values

 

 

Full Stop

1/4 Stop

1/3 Stop

1/2 Stop

2/3 Stop

3/4 Stop

Full Stop

1

1.09

1.12

1.18

1.26

1.30

1.4

1.4

1.54

1.59

1.68

1.78

1.83

2

2

2.18

2.24

2.38

2.52

2.59

2.8

2.8

3.08

3.17

3.36

3.56

3.67

4

4

4.36

4.49

4.76

5.04

5.19

5.6

5.6

6.17

6.35

6.73

7.13

7.34

8

8

8.72

8.98

9.51

10.08

10.37

11

11

12.34

12.70

13.45

14.25

14.67

16

16

17.45

17.96

19.03

20.16

20.75

22

22

24.68

25.40

26.91

28.51

29.34

32

32

34.90

35.92

38.05

40.32

41.50

45

 

 

 


 

F-Stop Compensation - Filters

 

 

Filter

F-Stop/T-Stop
Compensation
(Open Aperture)

 

Filter

F-Stop/T-Stop
Compensation(Open Aperture)

85

2/3

 

80A

2

85 N3

1 2/3

 

80B

1 2/3

85 N6

2 2/3

 

80C

1

85 N9

3 2/3

 

81A, 81B, 81C

1/3

LLD

0

 

81EF

2/3

ND 3

1

 

812

1/3

ND 6

2

 

82A

1/3

ND 9

3

 

82B

2/3

Polarizer

2

 

85B

2/3

Optical Flat

0

 

85C

1/3

Enhancer

1

 

Diopter

0

FLB

1

 

UV

0

FLD

1

 

Sky 1-A

0

Fog, Double Fog

0

 

Haze 1

0

Contrast
(Low, Soft, Ultra)

0

 

Haze 2

0

Black Dot

1

 

Warm UV

1/3

Pro Mist

0

 

Soft Net

1/3 2/3

Warm Pro Mist

1/3

 

Coral, Sepia

Based on Density

Soft F/X

0

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

F-Stop Compensation for Black & White Filters

 

 

Filter

           F-Stop/T-Stop Compensation
               (Open Aperture)

 

Daylight

Tungsten

#8 YELLOW

1

2/3

#11 GREEN

2

1 2/3

#12 YELLOW

1

2/3

#15 DEEP YELLOW

1 2/3

1

#16 ORANGE

1 2/3

1 2/3

#21 ORANGE

2 1/3

2

#23A LIGHT RED

2 2/3

1 2/3

#25 RED

3

2 2/3

#29 DARK RED

4 1/3

2

#47 DARK BLUE

2 1/3

3

#47B DARK BLUE

4

#58 DARK GREEN

3

3

 

 

 


 

F-Stop Compensation for Frames Per Second Changes

 

 

Frames
Per
Second

F-Stop/T-Stop
Compensation

 

Frames
Per
Second

F-Stop/T-Stop
Compensation

5

Close 2

 

36-39

Open 2/3

6

Close 2

 

40-44

Open

7

Close 1

 

45-52

Open 1

8

Close 1 2/3

 

53-58

Open 1

9

Close 1 1/3

 

59-64

Open 1 1/3

10-11

Close 1

 

65-71

Open 1

12-13

Close 1

 

72-78

Open 1 2/3

14

Close

 

79-88

Open 1

15-16

Close 2/3

 

89-104

Open 2

17

Close

 

105-117

Open 2

18-19

Close 1/3

 

118-128

Open 2 1/3

20-22

Close

 

129-143

Open 2

23-26

0

 

144-156

Open 2 2/3

27-29

Open

 

157-176

Open 2

30-32

Open 1/3

 

177-209

Open 3

33-35

Open

 

 

 

 


 


 

F-Stop Compensation for Shutter Angle Changes

 

 

Shutter Angle

F-Stop/T-Stop
Compensation

197-200

Close

166-196

Full Exposure

148-165

Open

135-147

Open 1/3

121-134

Open1/2

111-120

Open 2/3

99-110

Open

83-98

Open 1

74-82

Open1

68-73

Open 1 1/3

61-67

Open 1

56-60

Open 1 2/3

50-55

Open 1

42-49

Open 2

37-41

Open 2

34-36

Open 2 1/3

31-33

Open 2

28-30

Open 2 2/3

25-27

Open 2

22.5-24

Open 3

 

 

 


 

Feet Per Second & Feet Per Minute

 

 

 

16mm

35mm 2-perf

35mm 3-perf

35mm 4-perf

FPS

Feet per Second

Feet per Minute

Feet per Second

Feet per Minute

Feet per Second

Feet per Minute

Feet per Second

Feet per Minute

6

.15

9

.188

11.25

.28

16.9

.375

22.5

12

.3

18

.375

22.5

.56

33.8

.75

45

18

.45

27

.5625

33.75

.85

50.7

1.125

67.5

24

.6

36

.75

45

1.13

67.5

1.5

90

25

.625

37.5

.7812

46.875

1.17

70.31

1.5625

93.75

30

.75

45

.9375

56.25

1.41

84.5

1.875

112.5

36

.9

54

1.125

67.5

1.69

101.4

2.25

135

48

1.2

72

1.5

90

2.25

135.2

3

180

60

1.5

90

1.875

112.5

2.82

169

3.75

225

72

1.8

108

2.25

135

3.38

202.8

4.5

270

96

2.4

144

3

180

4.5

270.4

6

360

120

3

180

3.75

225

5.63

338

7.5

450

 

 


 

Meters Per Second & Meters Per Minute

 

 

 

16mm

35mm 2-perf

35mm 3-perf

35mm 4-perf

FPS

Meters per Second

Meters per Minute

Meters per Second

Meters per Minute

Meters per Second

Meters per Minute

Meters per Second

Meters per Minute

6

.046

2.74

.057

3.42

.086

5.14

.115

6.875

12

.092

5.49

.114

6.86

.172

10.29

.229

13.71

18

.137

8.23

.172

10.29

.257

15.43

.343

20.57

24

.183

10.97

.229

13.72

.343

20.57

.457

27.43

25

.191

11.43

.238

14.29

.357

21.43

.476

28.57

30

.229

13.72

.286

17.15

.429

25.72

.572

34.29

36

.274

16.46

.343

20.57

.514

30.86

.686

41.14

48

.366

21.95

.457

27.43

.686

41.14

.914

54.86

60

.457

27.43

.572

34.29

.857

51.43

1.14

68.57

72

.549

32.92

.686

41.14

1.03

61.71

1.37

82.29

96

.732

43.89

.914

54.86

1.37

82.29

.83

109.71

120

.915

54.87

1.14

68.57

1.71

102.86

2.29

137.14

 


 


 

 

Running Time to Film Length

 

 

16mm Running Time

FPS

100 feet

200 feet

400 feet

800 feet

1200 feet

6

11 min 7 sec

22 min 13 sec

44 min 26 sec

1 hr 28 min 53 sec

2 hr 13 min 20 sec

12

5 min 33 sec

11 min 7 sec

22 min 13 sec

44 min 26 sec

1 hr 6 min 40 sec

18

3 min 42 sec

7 min 24 sec

14 min 49 sec

29 min 38 sec

44 min 26 sec

24

2 min 46 sec

5 min 33 sec

11 min 7 sec

22 min 13 sec

33 min 20 sec

25

2 min 40 sec

5 min 20 sec

10 mi 40 sec

21 mi 2 sec

32 min

30

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

26 min 40 sec

36

1 min 51 sec

3 min 42 sec

7 min 25 sec

14 min 49 sec

22 min 13 sec

48

1 min 23 sec

2 min 46 sec

5 min 33 sec

11 min 7 sec

16 min 40 sec

60

1 min 7 sec

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

13 min 20 sec

72

55 sec

1 min 51 sec

3 min 42 sec

7 min 25 sec

11 min 7 sec

96

41 sec

1 min 23 sec

2 min 46 sec

5 min 33 sec

8 min 20 sec

120

33 sec

1 min 7 sec

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

6 min 40 sec

 

 

FPS

35mm  2-perf Running Time

100 feet

200 feet

400 feet

1000 feet

2000 feet

6

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

35 min 33 sec

1 hr 28 min 53 sec

2 hr 7 min 46 sec

12

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

44 min 26 sec

1 hr 28 min 53 sec

18

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

11 min 51 sec

29 min 37 sec

59 min 15 sec

24

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

22 min 13 sec

44 min 26 sec

25

2 min 8 sec

4 min 16 sec

8 min 32 sec

21 min 20 sec

42 min 40 sec

30

1 min 46 sec

3 min 33 sec

7 min 6 sec

17 min 46 sec

35 min 33 sec

36

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

14 min 48 sec

29 min 37 sec

48

1 min 6 sec

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

11 min 6 sec

22 min 13 sec

60

53 sec

1 min 46 sec

3 min 33 sec

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

72

44 sec

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

7 min 24 sec

14 min 48 sec

96

33 sec

1 min 6 sec

2 min 13 sec

5 min 33 sec

11 min 6 sec

120

26 sec

53 sec

1 min 46 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec


 

FPS

35mm  3-perf Running Time

100 feet

200 feet

400 feet

1000 feet

2000 feet

6

5 min 55 sec

11 min 51 sec

23 min 42 sec

59 min 15 sec

1 hr 58 min 30 sec

12

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

11 min 51 sec

29 min 37 sec

59 min 15 sec

18

1 min 58 sec

3 min 57 sec

7 min 54 sec

19 min 45 sec

39 min 30 sec

24

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

14 min 48 sec

29 min 37 sec

25

1 min 25 sec

2 min 50 sec

5 min 41 sec

14 min 13 sec

28 min 26 sec

30

1 min 11 sec

2 min 22 sec

4 min 44 sec

11 min 51 sec

23 min 42 sec

36

59 sec

1 min 58 sec

3 min 57 sec

9 min 52 sec

19 min 45 sec

48

44 sec

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

7 min 24 sec

14 min 48 sec

60

35 sec

1 min 11 sec

2 min 22 sec

5 min 55 sec

11 min 51 sec

72

29 sec

59 sec

1 min 58 sec

4 min 56 sec

9 min 52 sec

96

22 sec

44 sec

1 min 28 sec

3 min 42 sec

7 min 24 sec

120

17 sec

35 sec

1 min 11 sec

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

 

 

 

35mm  4-perf Running Time

FPS

100 feet

200 feet

400 feet

1000 feet

2000 feet

6

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

44 min 26 sec

1 hr 28 min 53 sec

12

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

22 min 13 sec

44 min 26 sec

18

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

5 min 55 sec

14 min 48 sec

29 min 37 sec

24

1 min 6 sec

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

11 min 6 sec

22 min 13 sec

25

1 min 4 sec

2 min 8 sec

4 min 16 sec

10 min 40 sec

21 min 20 sec

30

53 sec

1 min 46 sec

3 min 33 sec

8 min 53 sec

17 min 46 sec

36

44 sec

1 min 28 sec

2 min 57 sec

7 min 24 sec

14 min 48 sec

48

33 sec

1 min 6 sec

2 min 13 sec

5 min 33 sec

11 min 6 sec

60

26 sec

53 sec

1 min 46 sec

4 min 26 sec

8 min 53 sec

72

22 sec

44 sec

1 min 28 sec

3 min 42 sec

7 min 24 sec

96

16 sec

33 sec

1 min 6 sec

2 min 46 sec

5 min 33 sec

120

13 sec

26 sec

53 sec

2 min 13 sec

4 min 26 sec

 

 

 


 

Feet to Meters and Meters to Feet

 

 

Feet

Meters

1 foot

.30 meter

2 feet

.61 meter

3 feet

.91 meter

4 feet

1.22 meters

5 feet

1.52 meters

6 feet

1.83 meters

7 feet

2.13 meters

8 feet

2.44 meters

9 feet

2.74 meters

10 feet

3.05 meters

15 feet

4.57 meters

20 feet

6.10 meters

30 feet

9.14 meters

40 feet

12.19 meters

50 feet

15.24 meters

 

 

 

Meters

Feet / Inches

.1 meter

3.9 inches

.2 meter

7.9 inches

.3 meter

11.8 inches

.4 meter

15.7 inches

.5 meter

19.7 inches

.6 meter

23.6 inches

.7 meter

27.6 inches

.8 meter

31.5 inches

.9 meter

35.4 inches

1 meter

3 feet 3.4 inches

2 meters

6 feet 6.7 inches

3 meters

9 feet 10.1 inches

4 meters

13 feet 1.5 inches

5 meters

16 feet 4.8 inches

6 meters

19 feet  8.2 inches

7 meters

22 feet 11.6 inches

8 meters

26 feet 3 inches

9 meters

29 feet  6.3 inches

10 meters

32 feet  9.7 inches

 

 

 


 

Formulas

 

Depth of Field Near
 

depth of field (near)     =     hyperfocal distance  x  focus distance

                                         hyperfocal distance  +  focus distance

 

Depth of Field Far
 

depth of field (far)     =     hyperfocal distance  x  focus distance

                                       hyperfocal distance focus distance

 

Hyperfocal Distance
 

Hyperfocal distance     =                    focal length2               

                                               circle of confusion  x  f-stop

 

Electrical

 

amps  =    watts                  volts

or

watts = volts x amps

 

Exposure Time

 

exposure time  =                 shutter angle                   

                                 360  x  frames per second

 

F-Stop
 

f-stop  =               focal length of lens           

                       diameter of lens opening

 

Feet Per Minute for 16mm
 

feet per minute (16mm)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                40

 

Feet Per Minute for 35mm, 2-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 3-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                   32

 

Feet Per Minute for 35mm, 3-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 3-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                   21.33

 

Feet Per Minute for 35mm, 4-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 4-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                       16

 

Meters Per Minute for 16mm
 

feet per minute (16mm)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                            131.23

 

Meters Per Minute for 35mm, 2-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 3-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                   105

 

Meters Per Minute for 35mm, 3-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 3-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                   70

 

Meters Per Minute for 35mm, 4-perf Format
 

feet per minute (35mm, 4-perf format)     =     frames per second  x  60

                                                                                    52.5

 

Feet & Inches to Meters
 

Meters     =       (feet  x  12) +  inches

                                   39.37

 

Meters to Feet & Inches
 

feet     =   meters  x  3.2808

 

Screen Time
 

Screen time     =     camera running time  x  frames per second

                                                            24

 

 


 
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Title Bar used with permission of Focal Press

 
2013 David E. Elkins
 
Updated 03/01/2013